Burns, Richard; Crisp, Dimity; Burns, Robert B.
The cross‐lagged panel (regression) model (CLPM) is the usual framework of choice to test the longitudinal reciprocal effects between self‐concept and achievement. Criticisms of the CLPM are that causal paths are over‐estimated as they fail to discriminate between‐ and within‐person variation. The random‐intercept cross‐lagged panel model (RI‐CLPM) is one alternative that extends the CLPM by partialling out between‐person variance.
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