Amino acid transporters in the regulation of insulin secretion and signalling

Date

2019-04-01

Authors

Javed, Kiran
Fairweather, Stephen

Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title

Publisher

Portland Press

Abstract

Amino acids are increasingly recognised as modulators of nutrient disposal, including their role in regulating blood glucose through interactions with insulin signalling. More recently, cellular membrane transporters of amino acids have been shown to form a pivotal part of this regulation as they are primarily responsible for controlling cellular and circulating amino acid concentrations. The availability of amino acids regulated by transporters can amplify insulin secretion and modulate insulin signalling in various tissues. In addition, insulin itself can regulate the expression of numerous amino acid transporters. This review focuses on amino acid transporters linked to the regulation of insulin secretion and signalling with a focus on those of the small intestine, pancreatic β-islet cells and insulin-responsive tissues, liver and skeletal muscle. We summarise the role of the amino acid transporter B0AT1 (SLC6A19) and peptide transporter PEPT1 (SLC15A1) in the modulation of global insulin signalling via the liver-secreted hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). The role of vesicular vGLUT (SLC17) and mitochondrial SLC25 transporters in providing glutamate for the potentiation of insulin secretion is covered. We also survey the roles SNAT (SLC38) family and LAT1 (SLC7A5) amino acid transporters play in the regulation of and by insulin in numerous affective tissues. We hypothesise the small intestine amino acid transporter B0AT1 represents a crucial nexus between insulin, FGF21 and incretin hormone signalling pathways. The aim is to give an integrated overview of the important role amino acid transporters have been found to play in insulin-regulated nutrient signalling.

Description

Keywords

amino acid metabolism, amino acid transporters, fibroblast growth factor 21, insulin secretion, insulin signalling, type 2 diabetes

Citation

Source

Biochemical Society Transactions

Type

Journal article

Book Title

Entity type

Access Statement

Open Access

License Rights

DOI

10.1042/BST20180250

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