Ectopic expression of cone-specific G-protein-coupled receptor kinase GRK7 in zebrafish rods leads to lower photosensitivity and altered responses




Vogalis, Fivos
Shiraki, T.
Kojima, D.
Wada, Y.
Nishiwaki, Y
Jarvinen, Jaakko
Sugiyama, J
Kawakami, K
Masai, I
Kawamura, S.

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Cambridge University Press


To investigate the roles of G-protein receptor kinases (GRKs) in the light responses of vertebrate photoreceptors, we generated transgenic zebrafish lines, the rods of which express either cone GRK (GRK7) or rod GRK (GRK1) in addition to the endogenous GRK1, and we then measured the electrophysiological characteristics of single-cell responses and the behavioural responses of intact animals. Our study establishes the zebrafish expression system as a convenient platform for the investigation of specific components of the phototransduction cascade. The addition of GRK1 led to minor changes in rod responses. However, exogenous GRK7 in GRK7-tg animals led to lowered rod sensitivity, as occurs in cones, but surprisingly to slower response kinetics. Examination of responses to long series of very dim flashes suggested the possibility that the GRK7-tg rods generated two classes of single-photon response, perhaps corresponding to the interaction of activated rhodopsin with GRK1 (giving a standard response) or with GRK7 (giving a very small response). Behavioural measurement of optokinetic responses (OKR) in intact GRK7-tg zebrafish larvae showed that the overall rod visual pathway was less sensitive, in accord with the lowered sensitivity of the rods. These results help provide an understanding for the molecular basis of the electrophysiological differences between cones and rods.



Keywords: G protein coupled receptor kinase; protein GRK7; rhodopsin; unclassified drug; animal behavior; animal cell; animal experiment; animal tissue; article; controlled study; nerve potential; nonhuman; optokinetic response; photoreceptor; photosensitivity; pho



Journal of Physiology


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