Effectors of biotrophic fungi and oomycetes: pathogenicity factors and triggers of host resistance

Date

2009-09

Authors

Dodds, Peter N
Rafiqi, Maryam
Gan, Pamela H P
Hardham, Adrienne R
Jones, David A
Ellis, Jeffrey G

Journal Title

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Volume Title

Publisher

Wiley

Abstract

Many biotrophic fungal and oomycete pathogens share a common infection process involving the formation of haustoria, which penetrate host cell walls and form a close association with plant membranes. Recent studies have identified a class of patho- genicity effector proteins from these pathogens that is transferred into host cells from haustoria during infection. This insight stemmed from the identification of avirulence (Avr) proteins from these pathogens that are recognized by intracellular host resistance (R) proteins. Oomycete effectors contain a conserved translocation motif that directs their uptake into host cells independently of the pathogen, and is shared with the human malaria pathogen. Genome sequence information indicates that oomycetes may express several hundred such host-translocated effectors. Elucidating the transport mechanism of fungal and oomycete effectors and their roles in disease offers new opportunities to understand how these pathogens are able to manipulate host cells to establish a parasitic relationship and to develop new disease-control measures.

Description

Keywords

avirulence, biotroph, effector, proteins, haustoria, oomycete, resistance, rust

Citation

Source

New Phytologist 183.4 (2009): 993-1000

Type

Journal article

Book Title

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DOI

10.1111/j.1469-8137.2009.02922.x

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