1,2-Diketones as photoinitiators of both cationic and free-radical photopolymerization under UV (392 nm) or Blue (455 nm) LEDs




Zhang, Jing
Wang, Shuhui
Lalevee, Jacques
Morlet-Savary, Fabrice
Lam, Elizabeth
Graff, Bernadette
Liu, Jing
Xing, Feiyue
Xiao, Pu

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Wiley Online Library


The photoinitiation abilities of three 1,2-diketones [i.e., acenaphthenequinone (ANPQ), aceanthrenequinone (AATQ), and 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (PANQ)]-based photoinitiating systems [PISs, with additives such as iodonium salt, N-vinylcarbazole (NVK), tertiary amine, and phenacyl bromide (R-Br)] for cationic photopolymerization and free-radical photopolymerization under the irradiation of ultraviolet (UV; 392 nm) or blue (455 nm) light-emitting diode (LED) bulb are investigated. All 1,2-diketones studied exhibit ground state absorption that match with the emission spectra of UV (392 nm) or blue LED (455 nm) better than that of the well-known blue-light-sensitive photoinitiator camphorquinone (CQ). In particular, AATQ/iodonium salt/NVK can show high photoinitiating ability (with epoxide conversion yield >70%) under the UV light irradiation due to the effect of NVK. In addition, 1,2-diketone/iodonium salt (and optional NVK) systems are capable of initiating free-radical photopolymerization of methacrylates, with conversions of 50–58%. Furthermore, some 1,2-diketone/tertiary amine (and optional R-Br) combinations are found to demonstrate high efficiency to initiate free-radical photopolymerization, and 71% of methacrylate conversion can be achieved with PANQ/tertiary amine/R-Br PIS. Some 1,2-ketone-based PISs can even exhibit higher efficiency than the CQ-based systems. The photochemical mechanism of the radical generation from the 1,2-diketone-based PISs is investigated and found to be consistent with the related photopolymerization efficiency. © 2020 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci. 2020, 58, 792–802



1,2-diketone; blue LED, cationic photopolymerization;photoinitiator, photoinitiating system, free-radical photo-polymerization, UV LED



Journal of Polymer Science


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