# Relative loss bounds for multidimensional regression problems

## Date

2001

## Authors

Kivinen, Jyrki

Warmuth, Manfred

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## Publisher

Kluwer Academic Publishers

## Abstract

We study on-line generalized linear regression with multidimensional outputs, i.e., neural networks with multiple output nodes but no hidden nodes. We allow at the final layer transfer functions such as the softmax function that need to consider the linear activations to all the output neurons. The weight vectors used to produce the linear activations are represented indirectly by maintaining separate parameter vectors. We get the weight vector by applying a particular parameterization function to the parameter vector. Updating the parameter vectors upon seeing new examples is done additively, as in the usual gradient descent update. However, by using a nonlinear parameterization function between the parameter vectors and the weight vectors, we can make the resulting update of the weight vector quite different from a true gradient descent update. To analyse such updates, we define a notion of a matching loss function and apply it both to the transfer function and to the parameterization function. The loss function that matches the transfer function is used to measure the goodness of the predictions of the algorithm. The loss function that matches the parameterization function can be used both as a measure of divergence between models in motivating the update rule of the algorithm and as a measure of progress in analyzing its relative performance compared to an arbitrary fixed model. As a result, we have a unified treatment that generalizes earlier results for the gradient descent and exponentiated gradient algorithms to multidimensional outputs, including multiclass logistic regression.

## Description

## Keywords

Keywords: Algorithms; Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions; Transfer functions; Vectors; Generalized linear regressions; Regression analysis Bregman divergences; Generalized linear regression; On-line prediction; Relative loss bounds

## Citation

## Collections

## Source

Machine Learning

## Type

Journal article

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## Access Statement

## License Rights

## DOI

10.1023/A:1017938623079

## Restricted until

2037-12-31