High investment in mating and parental effort in male birds are considered mutually exclusive, as testosterone suppresses paternal care and stimulates sexual and aggressive behaviours. Superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus, are unusual in that males concurrently engage in courtship and paternal care. Fairy-wrens live as stable socially monogamous pairs with up to four subordinate male helpers. The majority of offspring are not sired by any of the males in the group but all group males provide...[Show more]
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