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Cardiovascular risk factors and life events as antecedents of depressive symptoms in middle and early old age: The PATH Through Life

Butterworth, Peter; Windsor, Timothy; Christensen, Helen; Sachdev, Perminder Singh; Burns, Richard; Anstey, Kaarin

Description

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and life events (LE) as predictors of depressive symptoms in a mid-life and an early late-life cohort to determine whether they had independent or interacting effects, and whether there were age differences in the effects. METHODS: Cohorts aged 40 to 44 years (n = 2530) and 60 to 64 years (n = 2551) at baseline (Wave 1) were followed up after 4 years (Wave 2) as part of the PATH Through Life Study based in Canberra and Queanbeyan,...[Show more]

dc.contributor.authorButterworth, Peter
dc.contributor.authorWindsor, Timothy
dc.contributor.authorChristensen, Helen
dc.contributor.authorSachdev, Perminder Singh
dc.contributor.authorBurns, Richard
dc.contributor.authorAnstey, Kaarin
dc.date.accessioned2015-12-10T22:16:31Z
dc.date.available2015-12-10T22:16:31Z
dc.identifier.issn0033-3174
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1885/50978
dc.description.abstractOBJECTIVE: To evaluate cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and life events (LE) as predictors of depressive symptoms in a mid-life and an early late-life cohort to determine whether they had independent or interacting effects, and whether there were age differences in the effects. METHODS: Cohorts aged 40 to 44 years (n = 2530) and 60 to 64 years (n = 2551) at baseline (Wave 1) were followed up after 4 years (Wave 2) as part of the PATH Through Life Study based in Canberra and Queanbeyan, Australia. Cross-sectional analyses evaluated rates of CVRF and LE in depressed compared with nondepressed participants. Hierarchical generalized linear models were used to evaluate demographic variables, CVRF (diabetes, smoking, alcohol, body mass index, cholesterol medication, hypertension), LE, and Wave 1 depressive symptoms as predictors of depressive symptoms at Wave 2. RESULTS: At baseline, those with high levels of depressive symptoms were more likely to report smoking, using cholesterol-lowering medications, hypertension, diabetes, past stroke, and higher body mass index. Predictors of depressive symptoms at Wave 2 in the cohort of 40-to 44-year-old persons included Wave 1 depressive symptoms, diabetes, and LE at Wave 2. In the cohort of 60-to 64-year-old individuals, Wave 1 depression, stroke, smoking, low education, and Wave 2 LE predicted depressive symptoms. There was no evidence of interactions between CVRF and LE. CONCLUSIONS: LE and CVRF are independent sets of risk factors for depressive symptoms with different effects in the 40-to 44-year-old and 60-to 64-year-old cohorts. These findings have implications for preventative strategies for depression.
dc.publisherLippincott Williams & Wilkins
dc.relation.ispartofThe PATH Through Life Project
dc.sourcePsychosomatic Medicine
dc.subjectKeywords: cholesterol; adult; alcohol consumption; antecedent variable; article; body mass; cardiovascular risk; cigarette smoking; controlled study; depression; diabetes mellitus; female; human; hypertension; life event; major clinical study; male; priority journa BMI; Cardiovascular risk factors; Depression; Diabetes; Epidemiology; Life events; Longitudinal study
dc.titleCardiovascular risk factors and life events as antecedents of depressive symptoms in middle and early old age: The PATH Through Life
dc.typeJournal article
local.description.notesImported from ARIES
local.identifier.citationvolume71
dc.date.issued2009
local.identifier.absfor170100 - PSYCHOLOGY
local.identifier.ariespublicationU4146231xPUB214
local.type.statusPublished Version
local.contributor.affiliationAnstey, Kaarin, College of Medicine, Biology and Environment, ANU
local.contributor.affiliationBurns, Richard, College of Medicine, Biology and Environment, ANU
local.contributor.affiliationButterworth, Peter, College of Medicine, Biology and Environment, ANU
local.contributor.affiliationWindsor, Timothy, College of Medicine, Biology and Environment, ANU
local.contributor.affiliationChristensen, Helen, College of Medicine, Biology and Environment, ANU
local.contributor.affiliationSachdev, Perminder Singh, University of New South Wales
local.bibliographicCitation.issue9
local.bibliographicCitation.startpage937
local.bibliographicCitation.lastpage943
local.identifier.doi10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181beab60
local.identifier.absseo920410 - Mental Health
dc.date.updated2016-02-24T10:37:35Z
local.identifier.scopusID2-s2.0-72049116015
local.identifier.thomsonID000272024800006
CollectionsANU Research Publications

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