Choul Kim, Min; Oh Kim, Chang; Taek Oh, Houng; Choi, Suk-Ho; Belay, K.; Elliman, R. G.; Russo, S. P.
We report nonvolatile memories (NVMs) based on deep-energy trap levels formed in HfO₂ by metal ion implantation. A comparison of Nb- and Ta-implanted samples shows that suitable charge-trapping centers are formed in Nb-implanted samples, but not in Ta-implanted samples. This is consistent with density-functional theory calculations which predict that only Nb will form deep-energy levels in the bandgap of HfO₂. Photocurrent spectroscopy exhibits characteristics consistent with one of the trap...[Show more]
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