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The Role of Eosinophils in the Regulation of CD4+ T helper 2 Regulated Inflammation




MacKenzie, Jason Roderick

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The eosinophil is a leukocyte whose intracellular mediators are considered to play a central role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, including allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis, and which is also involved in immunological responses to parasites. Eosinophil differentiation and maturation from bone marrow progenitors is regulated by interleukin-5 (IL-5), which may be secreted by T helper 2 (Th2) T lymphocytes, and is consistently upregulated in allergic conditions. Eotaxin is a potent chemoattractant for circulating and tissue eosinophils, and the production of this chemokine promotes eosinophil infiltration and accumulation within sites of allergic inflammation.¶ ...¶ In conclusion, eosinophils residing in the allergic lung have the capacity to interact with activated T cells, both within this tissue and the draining lymph nodes. Despite their relative inefficiency as antigen presenting cells (Mawhorter et al., 1994), eosinophils may participate en masse in the serial triggering of activated TCRs, and provide appropriate costimulatory signals that modulate T lymphocyte function. Through the elaboration of Th2 cytokines and stimulation of T cell proliferation, antigen presenting eosinophils may transiently prolong or exacerbate the symptoms of allergic diseases. Alternatively, eosinophils presenting relevant antigens may inhibit T cell activity via degranulation, and such activity has recently been observed in a parasite model (Shinkai et al., 2002). Finally, experiments in the OT-II mouse have provided valuable information to suggest that therapies designed to modulate eosinophil numbers in allergic tissues through the secretion of opposing cytokines such as IFN-γ, may be of limited benefit. The results shown here suggest that airways dysfunction remains intact despite significantly reduced pulmonary eosinophilia



Eosinophil, Antigen Presenting Cell, Allergic Airways Disease, AAD, Ovalbumin, Ova-transgenic, Asthma, CD4, Lymphocyte, T helper 2




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