Quantum optics has been, from its beginning, a driving force both for the exploration of fundamental limits of the quantum world and for conceiving seminal ideas and applications of the so-called quantum technologies.
The last 20 years have seen a rapid development of ideas and proof-of-principle experiments involving the fields of quantum communication, quantum computation, quantum metrology and quantum simulation. The so called continuous variable (CV) approach to quantum optics, which uses...[Show more] many photon in collective states, and continuous observables like the quadratures of the electric field to encode information, has many interesting properties, especially from a communications perspective. It is inherently broadband and compatible with standard telecom infrastructures. Moreover, in CV, entanglement, one of the fundamental resource of quantum optics, can be generated deterministically. One of the main challenges for all quantum information technologies is scalability, being able to generate and manipulate a large number of quantum resources to achieve practical tasks efficiently. One approach to solve the issue of scalability is to use highly multimode quantum states.
The quantum description of the electromagnetic field associate each photon (particle of light) with a mode (way for light to propagate). In a mutlimodal approach, we look at the quantum state bases and optical modes bases conjointly and tailor quantum fields not only in given modes, but also optimize the spatio-temporal shapes of the modes in which the state is defined. This opens wide perspectives for treating complex quantum states.
In particular, using ultra-fast pulses of light which contain many temporal/spectral modes, we are able to generate large and complex entangled states of light using simple resources. In this thesis, we used an optical parametric oscillator pumped synchronously (SPOPO) with a frequency comb to generate multimode squeezed vacuum states which can be used to form cluster states: a large collection of modes (the nodes) entangled to each other in a certain way. These state are the basic resource for Measurement Based Quantum Computation (MBQC). This set-up has the advantage to generate entanglement in many mode with a single device. It is also highly tunable. Indeed, by tuning the spectrum of the OPO pump with a pulse shaper, one can tailor the properties of the generated quantum state.
In this work, we focus on the optimization of the pump spectral shape to generate specific states. Using simulations based on Machine Learning Algorithms (MLA), we find optimal pump profile for typical target states. We then implement those shapes on the experimental set-up and measure the resulting states using multipixel homodyne detection. We also study intra-cavity dispersion effects. Dispersion inside the SPOPO cavity is indeed one of the main factor that limits the number of entangled modes in the generated quantum states. A systematic study of dispersion effects is therefore necessary to model the SPOPO output accurately. This works paves the way toward a fully tunable device that can be optimized in real time to generate specific quantum resources tailored for specific tasks.
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