Directed transport without net bias in physics and biology
Ratchets allow for directed transport without net bias. In this context, 'no net bias' means that net potential gradients on the system or non-zero initial velocities are not necessary to achieve a long-term non-zero average velocity. One type of a ratchet is the rocking ratchet, where a particle is subject to a periodic but asymmetric spatial potential, such as a sawtooth. If the particle is in addition subject to an alternating time-dependent force of zero mean, the average velocity of the...[Show more]
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