Mineral governance, conflicts, and rights : case studies on the informal mining of gold, tin, and coal in Indonesia
Mining has been occuring in Indonesia long before even the present nation came into being. Mineral resources form part of the nation's diverse livelihood bases in local communities. The successive governments of the sovereign Indonesian nation-state have felt it necessary to control mineral exploitation and to regulate mining activities. This was seen in Article 33(3) of the 1945 National Constitution that mandated the State to control and exploit all lands, waters, and natural riches contained...[Show more]
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