This thesis examines some of the major aspects of the semantic and syntactic characteristics of
'shang' and 'xia' in Mandarin Chinese. One of their basic meanings relates to the vertical
dimension, both 'shang' and 'xia, being involved in the indication of vertical direction and
position. It is seen that this vertical dimension can extend into the realms of quantity, status,
sequencing and time. The use of vertical terms in these extended areas is found in other
languages, such as English,...[Show more]
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