In spite of the fact that the Qing fiscal system changed noticeably
from the mid-nineteenth century on, a significantly new phase emerged only
in the later decades, with the year 1895 forming the watershed. After that
year financial crises became more acute than before and posed a serious
threat to the functioning of the Qing regime. Government finance was in
straitened circumstances as substantial portions of revenue were appropriated
for the payment of indemnities and foreign debts as...[Show more]
Items in Open Research are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.