The Hong Kong Human Ecology Programme was a first attempt to describe the ecology of a city and its human population in a holistic and integrative way. This book is the outcome. It is concerned with the 'system as a whole' - changing patterns of flow and use of energy, of nutrients and of water, and changes in housing and transport. It is also concerned with individual people - their actual conditions of life and their mental and physical health. It describes the mechanisms by which people adapt to potentially stressful conditions - such as the extraordinarily high population densities - as well as the limits to human adaptability. The book discusses important principles of human ecology relating to the interrelationship between society, environment and human well-being. The authors discussthe human ecological predicament as a whole, and they consider that the greatest hope for a long-term ecologically stable future for humankind lies in the concept of the multifocal society. Basically, this can be described as a system in which small societal units, within cities and in rural areas, are, as far as possible, self-sufficient in both material requirements for health and survival, such as food, water, shelter, clothing, and amenities, and in intangible or psycho-social aspects of human experience such as psychological support networks, recreational opportunities, satisfactory work opportunities, variety in daily experience, and responsibility for local affairs. The project was carried out by a small integrating group from the Australian National University in co-operation with a number of specialist groups from Hong Kong and Australia and with support from The Nuffield Foundation, UNESCO and UNEP. This resulting book outlines constructive ideas on the way in which society should develop if humankind is to derive the greatest benefits from advanced technology without serious damage to the ecosystem as a whole.