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Prophets and followers in Batak Millenarian responses to the colonial order : parmalim, na siak bagi and parhudamdam, 1890-1930

Hirosue, Masashi


The thesis examines three related millenarian movements among the Batak: Parmalim, Na Siak Bagi and Parhudamdam. During the latter part of the 19th century, the Toba Batak area in north Sumatra was exposed to Euroean influence after the defeat of the traditional power symbol, Si Singa Mangaraja. Millenarian expectations began after Batak people were obliged to recognize the superiority of European power, yet were in many cases not satisfied with the new order. The Parmalim movement was...[Show more]

CollectionsOpen Access Theses
Date published: 1988
Type: Thesis (PhD)
DOI: 10.25911/5d7634b4c746d


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