Fujian, a coastal province in the southern part of China, has historically been
famous for the overseas emigration of its people and maritime trade with the
subsequent emergence of well known ports including Fuzhou, Quanzhou, Zhangzhou
and Xiamen. Among these ports, Fuzhou and Xiamen were particularly significant
in that their being opened as treaty ports after the Opium Wars had resulted in the
penetration of Western culture which was followed by the gradual modernization of
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