W-band orientation selective DEER measurements on a Gd 3+ /nitroxide mixed-labeled protein dimer with a dual mode cavity




Kaminker, Ilia
Tkach, Igor
Manukovsky, Nurit
Yagi, Hiromasa
Bennati, Marina
Goldfarb, Daniella
Otting, Gottfried
Huber, Thomas

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Academic Press


Double electron-electron resonance (DEER) at W-band (95 GHz) was applied to measure the distance between a pair of nitroxide and Gd3+ chelate spin labels, about 6 nm apart, in a homodimer of the protein ERp29. While high-field DEER measurements on systems with such mixed labels can be highly attractive in terms of sensitivity and the potential to access long distances, a major difficulty arises from the large frequency spacing (about 700 MHz) between the narrow, intense signal of the Gd3+ central transition and the nitroxide signal. This is particularly problematic when using standard single-mode cavities. Here we show that a novel dual-mode cavity that matches this large frequency separation dramatically increases the sensitivity of DEER measurements, allowing evolution times as long as 12 μs in a protein. This opens the possibility of accessing distances of 8 nm and longer. In addition, orientation selection can be resolved and analyzed, thus providing additional structural information. In the case of W-band DEER on a Gd3+- nitroxide pair, only two angles and their distributions have to be determined, which is a much simpler problem to solve than the five angles and their distributions associated with two nitroxide spin labels.



Keywords: DEER; Double electron-electron resonance; Dual modes; Frequency separation; Frequency spacing; High field; Homodimers; Intense signals; Nitroxides; Single mode cavity; Spin label; Structural information; Distance measurement; Paramagnetic resonance; Prote DEER; Distance measurements; Dual mode cavity; EPR; Gd3+ spin labels; High field; Orientation selection



Journal of Magnetic Resonance


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