From genes to shape during metamorphosis: a history

Date

2021

Authors

Thompson, Barry

Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title

Publisher

Elsevier BV

Abstract

Metamorphosis (Greek for a state of transcending-form or change-in-shape) refers to a dramatic transformation of an animal's body structure that occurs after development of the embryo or larva in many species. The development of a fly (or butterfly) from a crawling larva (or caterpillar) that forms a pupa (or chrysalis) before eclosing as a flying adult is a classic example of metamorphosis that captures the imagination and has been immortalized in children's books. Powerful genetic experiments in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster have revealed how genes can instruct the behaviour of individual cells to control patterns of tissue growth, mechanical force, cell-cell adhesion and cell matrix adhesion drive morphogenetic change in epithelial tissues. Together, the distribution of mass, force and resistance determines cell shape changes, cell-cell rearrangements, and/or the orientation of cell divisions to generate the final form of the tissue. In organising tissue shape, genes harness the power of self-organisation to determine the collective behaviour of molecules and cells, which can often be reproduced in computer simulations of cell polarity and/or tissue mechanics. This review highlights fundamental discoveries in epithelial morphogenesis made by pioneers who were fascinated by metamorphosis, including D'Arcy Thompson, Conrad Waddington, Dianne Fristrom and Antonio Garcia-Bellido.

Description

Keywords

Citation

Source

Current Opinion in Insect Science

Type

Journal article

Book Title

Entity type

Access Statement

License Rights

DOI

10.1016/j.cois.2020.08.008

Restricted until

2099-12-31