Evolution of Carbonatite Magmas in the Upper Mantle and Crust

Date

2021

Authors

Yaxley, Greg
Kjarsgaard, Bruce A.
Jaques, Lynton

Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title

Publisher

Mineralogical Society of America

Abstract

Carbonatites are the most silica-poor magmas known and are amongst Earth’s most enigmatic igneous rocks. They crystallise to rocks dominated by the carbonate minerals calcite and dolomite. We review models for carbonatite petrogenesis, including direct partial melting of mantle lithologies, exsolution from silica-undersaturated alkali silicate melts, or direct fractionation of carbonated silicate melts to carbonate-rich residual melts. We also briefly discuss carbonatite–mantle wall-rock reactions and other processes at mid-to upper crustal depths, including fenitisation, overprinting by carbohydrothermal fluids, and reaction between carbonatite melt and crustal lithologies.

Description

Keywords

carbonatite, partial mantle melts, liquid immiscibility, fractionation, SiO2-undersaturated melts

Citation

Source

Elements

Type

Journal article

Book Title

Entity type

Access Statement

Open Access

License Rights

Creative Commons Attribution License

DOI

10.2138/GSELEMENTS.17.5.315

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