The 1994–2001 eruptive period at Rabaul, Papua New Guinea: Petrological and geochemical evidence for basalt injections into a shallow dacite magma reservoir, and significant SO 2 flux

Date

2017

Authors

Patia, H.
Eggins, S.M.
Arculus, Richard
McKee, C.O.
Johnson, R.W.
Bradney, A.

Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title

Publisher

Elsevier

Abstract

The eruptions that began at Rabaul Caldera on 19 September 1994 had two focal points, the vents Tavurvur and Vulcan, located 6 km apart on opposing sides of the caldera. Vulcan eruptives define a tight cluster of dacite compositions, whereas Tavurvur eruptives span an array from equivalent dacite compositions to mafic andesites. The eruption of geochemically and mineralogically identical dacites from both vents indicates sourcing from the same magma reservoir. This, together with previously reported H₂O-CO₂ volatile contents of dacite melt inclusions, a caldera-wide seismic low-velocity zone, and a seismically active caldera ring fault structure are consistent with the presence at 3–6 km depth of an extensive, tabular dacitic magma body having volume of about 15–150 km³. The Tavurvur andesites form a linear compositional array and have strongly bimodal phenocryst assemblages that reflect dacite hybridisation with a mafic basalt. The moderately large volume SO₂ flux documented in the Tavurvur volcanic plume (and negligible SO₂ flux in the Vulcan plume) combined with high dissolved S contents of basaltic melt inclusions trapped in olivine of Tavurvur eruptives, indicate that the amount of degassed basaltic magma was ~ 0.1 km³ and suggest that the injection of this magma was confined to the Tavurvur-side (eastern to northeastern sector) of the caldera. Circumstantial evidence suggests that the eruption was triggered and evolved in response to a series of basaltic magma injections that may have commenced in 1971 and continued up until at least the start of the 1994 eruptions. The presence of zoned plagioclase phenocrysts reflecting older basalt-dacite interaction events (i.e. anorthite cores overgrown with thick andesine rims), evaluation of limited available data for the products of previous eruptions in 1878 and 1937–1943, and the episodic occurrence of major intra-caldera seismo-deformational events indicates that the shallow magma system at Rabaul Caldera is subjected to repeated mafic magma injections at intervals of several years to several decades.

Description

Keywords

Rabaul Caldera, Magma mixing, DaciteBasalt, Volatiles

Citation

Source

Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research

Type

Journal article

Book Title

Entity type

Access Statement

Open Access

License Rights

DOI

10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2017.08.011

Restricted until