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The innate immune repertoire in Cnidaria - ancestral complexity and stochastic gene loss

Miller, David J; Hemmrich, Georg; Ball, Eldon; Hayward, David C; Khalturin, Konstantin; Funayama, Noriko; Agata, Kiyokazu; Bosch, Thomas CG

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BACKGROUND Characterization of the innate immune repertoire of extant cnidarians is of both fundamental and applied interest--it not only provides insights into the basic immunological 'tool kit' of the common ancestor of all animals, but is also likely to be important in understanding the global decline of coral reefs that is presently occurring. Recently, whole genome sequences became available for two cnidarians, Hydra magnipapillata and Nematostella vectensis, and large expressed sequence...[Show more]

dc.contributor.authorMiller, David J
dc.contributor.authorHemmrich, Georg
dc.contributor.authorBall, Eldon
dc.contributor.authorHayward, David C
dc.contributor.authorKhalturin, Konstantin
dc.contributor.authorFunayama, Noriko
dc.contributor.authorAgata, Kiyokazu
dc.contributor.authorBosch, Thomas CG
dc.date.accessioned2016-01-25T03:09:08Z
dc.date.available2016-01-25T03:09:08Z
dc.identifier.issn1465-6906
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1885/95650
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND Characterization of the innate immune repertoire of extant cnidarians is of both fundamental and applied interest--it not only provides insights into the basic immunological 'tool kit' of the common ancestor of all animals, but is also likely to be important in understanding the global decline of coral reefs that is presently occurring. Recently, whole genome sequences became available for two cnidarians, Hydra magnipapillata and Nematostella vectensis, and large expressed sequence tag (EST) datasets are available for these and for the coral Acropora millepora. RESULTS To better understand the basis of innate immunity in cnidarians, we scanned the available EST and genomic resources for some of the key components of the vertebrate innate immune repertoire, focusing on the Toll/Toll-like receptor (TLR) and complement pathways. A canonical Toll/TLR pathway is present in representatives of the basal cnidarian class Anthozoa, but neither a classic Toll/TLR receptor nor a conventional nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB could be identified in the anthozoan Hydra. Moreover, the detection of complement C3 and several membrane attack complex/perforin domain (MAC/PF) proteins suggests that a prototypic complement effector pathway may exist in anthozoans, but not in hydrozoans. Together with data for several other gene families, this implies that Hydra may have undergone substantial secondary gene loss during evolution. Such losses are not confined to Hydra, however, and at least one MAC/PF gene appears to have been lost from Nematostella. CONCLUSION Consideration of these patterns of gene distribution underscores the likely significance of gene loss during animal evolution whilst indicating ancient origins for many components of the vertebrate innate immune system.
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was supported by Grants from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG/SFB617) to TCGB and from the Australian Research Council (ARC) directly to DJM and EEB (Grants A00105431, DP0209460 and DP0344483) and via both the Centre for the Molecular Genetics of Development and the Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies.
dc.publisherBioMed Central
dc.rights© 2007 Miller et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
dc.sourceGenome Biology
dc.subjectanimals
dc.subjectcnidaria
dc.subjectcomplement c3
dc.subjectexpressed sequence tags
dc.subjectgenome
dc.subjecthydra
dc.subjectimmunity, innate
dc.subjectphylogeny
dc.subjectprotein structure, tertiary
dc.subjectsignal transduction
dc.subjectstochastic processes
dc.subjecttoll-like receptors
dc.subjectgene deletion
dc.titleThe innate immune repertoire in Cnidaria - ancestral complexity and stochastic gene loss
dc.typeJournal article
local.description.notesImported from ARIES
local.identifier.citationvolume8
dc.date.issued2007-04-16
local.identifier.absfor060409
local.identifier.ariespublicationu9204316xPUB293
local.publisher.urlhttp://www.biomedcentral.com/
local.type.statusPublished Version
local.contributor.affiliationMiller, David J., James Cook University, Australia
local.contributor.affiliationHemmrich, Georg, University of Kiel, Germany
local.contributor.affiliationBall, Eldon, College of Medicine, Biology and Environment, CMBE Research School of Biology, Division of Evolution, Ecology & Genetics, The Australian National University
local.contributor.affiliationHayward, David, College of Medicine, Biology and Environment, CMBE Research School of Biology, Division of Evolution, Ecology & Genetics, The Australian National University
local.contributor.affiliationKhalturin, Konstantin, University of Kiel, Germany
local.contributor.affiliationFunayama, Noriko, Kyoto University, Japan
local.contributor.affiliationAgata, Kiyokazu, Kyoto University, Japan
local.contributor.affiliationBosch, Thomas CG, University of Kiel, Germany
dc.relationhttp://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP0209460
dc.relationhttp://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP0344483
local.identifier.essn1474-760X
local.bibliographicCitation.issue4
local.bibliographicCitation.startpageR59
local.bibliographicCitation.lastpage.13
local.identifier.doi10.1186/gb-2007-8-4-r59
dc.date.updated2016-02-24T11:52:09Z
local.identifier.scopusID2-s2.0-34548842785
CollectionsANU Research Publications

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