Numerical models of mantle convection are presented that readily yield midocean ridge basalt (MORB) and oceanic island basalt (OIB) ages equaling or exceeding the apparent ~1.8-Ga lead isotopic ages of trace-element heterogeneities in the mantle. These models feature high-viscosity surface plates and subducting lithosphere, and higher viscosities in the lower mantle. The formation and subduction of oceanic crust are simulated by means of tracers that represent a basaltic component. The models...[Show more]
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