Chemical States of Nitrogen in ZnO Studied by near-edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure and Core-level Photoemission Spectroscopies
Interaction of low-energy nitrogen ions with ZnO surface has been studied by photoemission spectroscopy (PES) around N 1s core-level and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) around N K-edge. Nitrogen can break Zn-O bonds at the surface and form N-O, Zn-N or Zn-N-O bonds, characterised by specific chemical shifts in PES or absorption peaks in NEXAFS. A distinctive signal from molecular nitrogen has also been observed in ion-bombarded samples in both NEXAFS and PES.
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