Hazelton, William D; Clements, Mark; Moolgavkar, Suresh
Experimental evidence indicates that tobacco smoke acts both as an initiator and a promoter in lung carcinogenesis. We used the two-stage clonal expansion model incorporating the ideas of initiation, promotion, and malignant conversion to analyze lung cancer mortality in three large cohorts, the British Doctors' cohort and the two American Cancer Society cohorts, to determine how smoking habits influence age-specific lung cancer rates via these mechanisms. Likelihood ratio tests indicate that...[Show more]
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