Lee, Richard; Findlay, Christopher
Telecommunications reform in Indonesia has occurred in two phases. In the first, from 1989, private participation was permitted in the fixed-line sector through public-private partnership (PPP) arrangements. In the current reform phase, which began in 1999, a duopoly structure was created in fixed-line sector operations, accompanied by a pro-competitive regulatory regime. The first reform phase was not successful. This paper explains that contract-based PPP programs provided only short-term...[Show more]
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