Si, Aung; Zhang, Shao Wu; Maleszka, Ryszard
Although caffeine is known to improve alertness and arousal in humans and other mammals, its impacts on specific behaviours, including complex cognitive processes, remain controversial. We reasoned that the availability of an easily manipulable, but behaviourally complex invertebrate organism with a simpler nervous system would be beneficial to this field of research. We used a popular behavioural model, the honeybee, to evaluate the effects of caffeine on (1) the development of olfactory...[Show more]
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