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Processing of cassava roots to remove cyanogens

Cardona, A.; Mirione, Estevao; Ernesto, Mario; Massaza, Fernando; Cliff, Julie; Haque, Memdadul; Bradbury, James

Description

A simple equation is developed between the total cyanide contents of cassava root parenchyma and the processed product with the % retention of cyanide on processing. This equation is applied to different methods of processing used worldwide. Thus to produce cassava flour of 10 mg HCN equivalents/kg flour (ppm), the WHO safe level, by sun drying or heap fermentation requires starting with sweet cassava containing 12-32 ppm total cyanide. In an average year only 14% of flour samples in our study...[Show more]

dc.contributor.authorCardona, A.
dc.contributor.authorMirione, Estevao
dc.contributor.authorErnesto, Mario
dc.contributor.authorMassaza, Fernando
dc.contributor.authorCliff, Julie
dc.contributor.authorHaque, Memdadul
dc.contributor.authorBradbury, James
dc.date.accessioned2015-12-13T22:53:44Z
dc.identifier.issn0889-1575
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1885/81947
dc.description.abstractA simple equation is developed between the total cyanide contents of cassava root parenchyma and the processed product with the % retention of cyanide on processing. This equation is applied to different methods of processing used worldwide. Thus to produce cassava flour of 10 mg HCN equivalents/kg flour (ppm), the WHO safe level, by sun drying or heap fermentation requires starting with sweet cassava containing 12-32 ppm total cyanide. In an average year only 14% of flour samples in our study areas in Nampula Province of Mozambique had total cyanide contents of <10 ppm. Distribution curves of flour total cyanide show that the percentage of samples exceeding 100 ppm total cyanide increased from 6% in an average year to 43-65% in a low rainfall year, when cases of konzo also occurred. Processing methods used to produce farinha in Brazil and gari in West Africa reduce the total cyanide content to less than one eighth of that using heap fermentation and less than one sixteenth of that using sun drying. Heap fermentation and sun drying, commonly used in eastern and southern Africa, do not adequately remove cyanide in a normal year and are hopelessly inadequate when used on cassava grown during drought. New and greatly improved processing methods are urgently needed. The high levels of cyanide intake in central, eastern and southern Africa from high cyanide flour are the most likely cause of konzo in young people and the very long term consumption of gari of lower cyanide content in West Africa is the most likely cause of TAN in older people.
dc.publisherAcademic Press
dc.sourceJournal of Food Composition and Analysis
dc.subjectKeywords: cyanide; article; cassava; chemical analysis; concentration (parameters); controlled study; cyanide poisoning; fermentation; food analysis; food processing; food safety; human; nonhuman; plant leaf; plant root; world health organization; Gari; Manihot esc Cassava processing; Cyanide; Flour; Gari; Heap fermentation; Linamarin; Safe levels of cyanogens; Sun drying
dc.titleProcessing of cassava roots to remove cyanogens
dc.typeJournal article
local.description.notesImported from ARIES
local.description.refereedYes
local.identifier.citationvolume18
dc.date.issued2005
local.identifier.absfor060101 - Analytical Biochemistry
local.identifier.absfor111199 - Nutrition and Dietetics not elsewhere classified
local.identifier.ariespublicationMigratedxPub10250
local.type.statusPublished Version
local.contributor.affiliationCardona, A., Cidade Universitaria
local.contributor.affiliationMirione, Estevao, Laboratorio Regional de Higiene de Alimentos e Aguas
local.contributor.affiliationErnesto, Mario, Laboratorio Regional de Higiene de Alimentos e Aguas
local.contributor.affiliationMassaza, Fernando, Laboratorio Regional de Higiene de Alimentos e Aguas
local.contributor.affiliationCliff, Julie, Monash University
local.contributor.affiliationHaque, Memdadul, College of Medicine, Biology and Environment, ANU
local.contributor.affiliationBradbury, James, College of Medicine, Biology and Environment, ANU
local.description.embargo2037-12-31
local.bibliographicCitation.startpage451
local.bibliographicCitation.lastpage460
local.identifier.doi10.1016/j.jfca.2004.04.002
dc.date.updated2015-12-11T10:59:16Z
local.identifier.scopusID2-s2.0-13544271948
CollectionsANU Research Publications

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