When and where did troidine butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) evolve? Phylogenetic and biogeographic evidence suggests an origin in remnant Gondwana in the Late Cretaceous
The age, geographic origin and time of major radiation of the butterflies (Hesperioidea + Papilionoidea + Hedyloidea) are largely unknown. The general modern view is that butterflies arose during the Late Jurassic/Cretaceous in the southern hemisphere (southern Pangea/Gondwana before continental breakup), but this is not universally accepted, and is a best guess based largely on circumstantial evidence. The extreme paucity of fossils and lack of modern, higher-level phylogenies of extant...[Show more]
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