Teaching a laser beam to go straight
In classical physics a beam of light propagates in a perfectly straight line and this means that we can measure small displacements with unlimited accuracy. However, this is not correct for real laser beams when we take the quantum properties of light into account. Spatial measurements will be limited by quantum noise, similar to the limitations for optical communication and sensing. Here we derive the spatial quantum noise limit and show how to measure it. Next we demonstrate that we can use...[Show more]
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