van Dijk, Wouter D.; Lenders, Jacques W.M.; Holtman, Joran; Grootens, Joke; Akkermans, Reinier; Heijdra, Yvonne; Schermer, Tjard R.J.; van Weel, Chris
Background: Smoking and bronchodilator treatment are both extensively studied as key elements in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, little is known about whether or not these elements interact in terms of developing cardiovascular diseases in patients with COPD. Objectives: To explore to what extent the risk of developing ischemic cardiovascular disease in COPD patients is mediated by smoking status, use of bronchodilators and - specifically - their interaction....[Show more]
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