MacDonald, Daniel; Cuevas, Andres; Kinomura, Atsushi; Nakano, Yukihiro; Geerligs, Lambert Johan
The concentrations of transition-metal impurities in a photovoltaic-grade multicrystalline silicon ingot have been measured by neutron activation analysis. The results show that the concentrations of Fe, Co, and Cu are determined by segregation from the liquid-to-solid phase in the central regions of the ingot. This produces high concentrations near the top of the ingot, which subsequently diffuse back into the ingot during cooling. The extent of this back diffusion is shown to correlate to the...[Show more]
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