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Dark adaptation and the retinoid cycle of vision

Lamb, Trevor; Pugh, Edward N

Description

Following exposure of our eye to very intense illumination, we experience a greatly elevated visual threshold, that takes tens of minutes to return completely to normal. The slowness of this phenomenon of "dark adaptation" has been studied for many decades, yet is still not fully understood. Here we review the biochemical and physical processes involved in eliminating the products of light absorption from the photoreceptor outer segment, in recycling the released retinoid to its original...[Show more]

dc.contributor.authorLamb, Trevor
dc.contributor.authorPugh, Edward N
dc.date.accessioned2015-12-13T22:38:19Z
dc.date.available2015-12-13T22:38:19Z
dc.identifier.issn1350-9462
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1885/77498
dc.description.abstractFollowing exposure of our eye to very intense illumination, we experience a greatly elevated visual threshold, that takes tens of minutes to return completely to normal. The slowness of this phenomenon of "dark adaptation" has been studied for many decades, yet is still not fully understood. Here we review the biochemical and physical processes involved in eliminating the products of light absorption from the photoreceptor outer segment, in recycling the released retinoid to its original isomeric form as 11-cis retinal, and in regenerating the visual pigment rhodopsin. Then we analyse the time-course of three aspects of human dark adaptation: the recovery of psychophysical threshold, the recovery of rod photoreceptor circulating current, and the regeneration of rhodopsin. We begin with normal human subjects, and then analyse the recovery in several retinal disorders, including Oguchi disease, vitamin A deficiency, fundus albipunctatus, Bothnia dystrophy and Stargardt disease. We review a large body of evidence showing that the time-course of human dark adaptation and pigment regeneration is determined by the local concentration of 11-cis retinal, and that after a large bleach the recovery is limited by the rate at which 11-cis retinal is delivered to opsin in the bleached rod outer segments. We present a mathematical model that successfully describes a wide range of results in human and other mammals. The theoretical analysis provides a simple means of estimating the relative concentration of free 11-cis retinal in the retina/RPE, in disorders exhibiting slowed dark adaptation, from analysis of psychophysical measurements of threshold recovery or from analysis of pigment regeneration kinetics.
dc.publisherPergamon Press
dc.sourceProgress in Retinal and Eye Research
dc.subjectKeywords: 11 cis retinal; ABC transporter; anesthetic agent; chaperone; lecithin retinol acyltransferase; mydriacil; opsin; retina S antigen; retinoid; retinol; retinol ester; rhodopsin; rhodopsin kinase; Schiff base; tropicamide; visual pigment; A wave; behavior;
dc.titleDark adaptation and the retinoid cycle of vision
dc.typeJournal article
local.description.notesImported from ARIES
local.description.refereedYes
local.identifier.citationvolume23
dc.date.issued2004
local.identifier.absfor110906 - Sensory Systems
local.identifier.ariespublicationMigratedxPub6347
local.type.statusPublished Version
local.contributor.affiliationLamb, Trevor, College of Medicine, Biology and Environment, ANU
local.contributor.affiliationPugh, Edward N, University of Pennsylvania
local.bibliographicCitation.issue3
local.bibliographicCitation.startpage307
local.bibliographicCitation.lastpage380
local.identifier.doi10.1016/j.preteyeres.2004.03.001
dc.date.updated2015-12-11T09:42:47Z
local.identifier.scopusID2-s2.0-2942617209
CollectionsANU Research Publications

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