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The biological basis of myopic refractive error

Morgan, Ian

Description

Myopia is among the most common refractive errors and is associated with the greatest risk of pathological outcomes. Most animals, including humans, are born with hyperopic errors. During development, axial elongation of the eye occurs and is regulated through a vision-dependent process, known as emmetropisation The extremely rapid changes in the prevalence of myopia and the dependence of myopia on the level of education indicate that there are very strong environmental impacts on the...[Show more]

dc.contributor.authorMorgan, Ian
dc.date.accessioned2015-12-13T22:27:44Z
dc.date.available2015-12-13T22:27:44Z
dc.identifier.issn0816-4622
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1885/74072
dc.description.abstractMyopia is among the most common refractive errors and is associated with the greatest risk of pathological outcomes. Most animals, including humans, are born with hyperopic errors. During development, axial elongation of the eye occurs and is regulated through a vision-dependent process, known as emmetropisation The extremely rapid changes in the prevalence of myopia and the dependence of myopia on the level of education indicate that there are very strong environmental impacts on the development of myopia. This conflicts with the common occurrence of familial patterns of inheritance of myopia, which suggests a role for genetic determination. There are more than 150 defined genetic syndromes in which familial high myopia is one of the features, including some that are not associated with other syndromes. The evidence for the roles of both nature and nurture in the aetiology of myopia is discussed. This review also examines the experimentally induced refractive errors associated with form-deprivation, recovery from form deprivation and the effects of both negative and positive lenses. In addition, it looks at the local and optical control of eye growth. Finally, the various control pathways for growth are considered. These include dopamine, ZENK-glucagon, retinoic acid and retinoic acid receptors, crystallin, seratonin and melatonin, vasoactive intestinal peptide and enkephalins, nitric oxide and various growth factors.
dc.publisherAustralian Optometrical Association
dc.sourceClinical and Experimental Optometry
dc.subjectKeywords: growth promotor; muscarinic receptor blocking agent; accommodation; animal; biological model; choroid; drug effect; eye; growth, development and aging; human; metabolism; myopia; retina; review; spectacles; Accommodation, Ocular; Animals; Choroid; Eye; Ey Accommodation; Aetiology; Emmetropisation; Eye growth; Myopia
dc.titleThe biological basis of myopic refractive error
dc.typeJournal article
local.description.notesImported from ARIES
local.description.refereedYes
local.identifier.citationvolume86
dc.date.issued2003
local.identifier.absfor111303 - Vision Science
local.identifier.ariespublicationMigratedxPub3953
local.type.statusPublished Version
local.contributor.affiliationMorgan, Ian, College of Medicine, Biology and Environment, ANU
local.bibliographicCitation.issue5
local.bibliographicCitation.startpage276
local.bibliographicCitation.lastpage288
local.identifier.doi10.1111/j.1444-0938.2003.tb03123.x
dc.date.updated2015-12-11T08:34:10Z
local.identifier.scopusID2-s2.0-0742333759
CollectionsANU Research Publications

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