Scandinavia and Australia share an early emphasis on tax-financed
minimum pension schemes rather than Bismarckian style contribution-based
earnings related schemes. I argue that Scandinavia and Australia
also share a similar sequence of later pension-political developments,
despite differences in the timing of various initiatives, as well as in the
institutional designs of these initiatives. First, means-testing was
softened and ultimately abolished in the minimum protection systems...[Show more]
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