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Symbolic use of marine shells and mineral pigments by Iberian Neandertals

Zilhao, Joao; Angelucci, Diego E.; Badal, E.; d'Errico, Francesco; Daniel, Floreal; Dayet, Laure; Douka, K.; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Montes-Bernárdez, Ricardo; Wood, Rachel


Two sites of the Neandertal-associated Middle Paleolithic of Iberia, dated to as early as approximately 50,000 years ago, yielded perforated and pigment-stained marine shells. At Cueva de los Aviones, three umbo-perforated valves of Acanthocardia and Glycymeris were found alongside lumps of yellow and red colorants, and residues preserved inside a Spondylus shell consist of a red lepidocrocite base mixed with ground, dark red-to-black fragments of hematite and pyrite. A perforated Pecten shell,...[Show more]

CollectionsANU Research Publications
Date published: 2010
Type: Journal article
Source: PNAS - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0914088107


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