New mechanisms of void growth in Au-Al wire bonds: Volumetric shrinkage and intermetallic oxidation
Xu, H; Liu, C; Silberschmidt, V V; Pramana, Stevin S; White, Timothy; Chen, Z; Acoff, V L
This letter examines void nucleation and coalescence in Au-Al wire bonds using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It is found that void formation is not only attributed to Kirkendall-type migration as conventionally believed, but also due to volumetric shrinkage and intermetallic oxidation. A volumetric shrinkage of a few percent is associated with intermetallic growth and phase transformations. Intermetallic oxidation occurs at the intermetallics/alumina interface and the...[Show more]
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