Coletti, Gianluca; Bronsveld, P C P; Hahn, Giso; Warta, Wilhelm; MacDonald, Daniel; Ceccaroli, Bruno; Wambach, Karsten; Le Quang, Nam Le; Fernandez, Juan M
The impact of the transition metals iron, chromium, nickel, titanium and copper on solar-cell performance is investigated. Each impurity is intentionally added to the silicon feedstock used to grow p-type, directionally solidified, multicrystalline silicon ingots. A state-of-the-art screen-print solar-cell process is applied to this material. Impurities like iron, chromium and titanium cause a reduction in the diffusion length. Nickel does not reduce the diffusion length significantly, but...[Show more]
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