Xia, Hua; Byrne, David; Falkovich, Gregory; Shats, Michael
Flows in natural fluid layers are often forced simultaneously at scales smaller and much larger than the depth. For example, the Earth's atmospheric flows are powered by gradients of solar heating: vertical gradients cause three-dimensional (3D) convection whereas horizontal gradients drive planetary scale flows. Nonlinear interactions spread energy over scales1,2. The question is whether intermediate scales obtain their energy from a large-scale 2D flow or from a small-scale 3D turbulence. The...[Show more]
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