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Noble gas and halogen constraints on fluid sources in iron oxide-copper-gold mineralization: Mantoverde and La Candelaria, Northern Chile

Marschik, Robert; Kendrick, Mark

Description

The noble gas (Ar, Kr, Xe) and halogen (Cl, Br, I) composition of fluid inclusions in hydrothermal quartz and calcite related to the hypogene iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) mineralization at Mantoverde and Candelaria, Chile, have been investigated to provide new insights of fluid and salinity sources in Andean IOCG deposits. A combination of mechanical extraction by crushing and thermal decrepitation methods was applied and collectively indicate that fluid inclusions with salinities ranging from...[Show more]

dc.contributor.authorMarschik, Robert
dc.contributor.authorKendrick, Mark
dc.date.accessioned2015-12-10T23:20:12Z
dc.identifier.issn0026-4598
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1885/66218
dc.description.abstractThe noble gas (Ar, Kr, Xe) and halogen (Cl, Br, I) composition of fluid inclusions in hydrothermal quartz and calcite related to the hypogene iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) mineralization at Mantoverde and Candelaria, Chile, have been investigated to provide new insights of fluid and salinity sources in Andean IOCG deposits. A combination of mechanical extraction by crushing and thermal decrepitation methods was applied and collectively indicate that fluid inclusions with salinities ranging from 3.4 up to 64 wt% NaCl equivalent have molar Br/Cl and I/Cl ratios of between 0.5 × 10−3 and 3.0 × 10−3 and I/Cl of between 8 × 10−6 and 25 × 10−6 in the majority of samples, with maximum values of 5.2 × 10−3 obtained for Br/Cl and 64 × 10−6 for I/Cl in fluid inclusions within individual samples. The fluid inclusions have age-corrected 40Ar/36Ar ratios ranging from the atmospheric value of 296 up to 490 ± 45, indicating the presence of crustal- or mantle-derived excess 40Ar in the fluid inclusions of most samples. The fluid inclusions have 84Kr/36Ar and 130Xe/36Ar ratios intermediate of air and air-saturated water. However, 40Ar/36Ar is not correlated with either 84Kr/36Ar or 130Xe/36Ar, and the fluid inclusion 36Ar concentrations of 0.2–3.5 × 10−10 mol/g (calculated from measured Cl/36Ar and thermometric salinity measurements) extend below the seawater value of 0.34 × 10−10 mol/g, suggesting that contamination with modern air is a minor artifact. The range of fluid inclusion Br/Cl and I/Cl ratios overlap those previously documented for the mantle and magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits, and the fluids’ unusually low 36Ar concentration is consistent with the involvement of magmatic-hydrothermal fluids. Input of additional non-magmatic fluid components is suggested by the spread in Br/Cl and I/Cl to values characteristic of bittern brine sedimentary formation waters and near atmospheric 40Ar/36Ar. These data are compatible with mixing of magmatic-hydrothermal fluids and evaporated seawater, which was modified by interaction with back-arc basin sediments as the major control on ore formation. Low Br/Cl (<0.5 × 10−3) and I/Cl (<5.0 × 10−6) values that would provide evidence for evaporite dissolution as an important source of fluid salinity were not detected.
dc.publisherSpringer Verlag
dc.sourceMineralium Deposita
dc.titleNoble gas and halogen constraints on fluid sources in iron oxide-copper-gold mineralization: Mantoverde and La Candelaria, Northern Chile
dc.typeJournal article
local.description.notesImported from ARIES
local.identifier.citationvolume50
dc.date.issued2014
local.identifier.absfor040202 - Inorganic Geochemistry
local.identifier.absfor040307 - Ore Deposit Petrology
local.identifier.ariespublicationa383154xPUB1245
local.type.statusPublished Version
local.contributor.affiliationMarschik, Robert, Ludwig-Maximilians Universität
local.contributor.affiliationKendrick, Mark, College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, ANU
local.description.embargo2037-12-31
local.bibliographicCitation.issue3
local.bibliographicCitation.startpage357
local.bibliographicCitation.lastpage371
local.identifier.doi10.1007/s00126-014-0548-x
local.identifier.absseo849999 - Mineral Resources (excl. Energy Resources) not elsewhere classified
dc.date.updated2015-12-10T10:21:19Z
local.identifier.scopusID2-s2.0-84924680427
CollectionsANU Research Publications

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