Polyandry occurs because females initially trade sex for protection
In many species, females mate with multiple males, suggesting that polyandry confers fitness-enhancing benefits. The benefits of polyandry are usually attributed to either the cumulative acquisition of direct material benefits from consecutive mates or genetic benefits resulting from access to greater sperm diversity that facilitates cryptic female choice and sperm competition or simply elevates genetic diversity among offspring. With the notable exception of studies in birds that contrast...[Show more]
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