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Cenozoic extinctions account for the low diversity of extant gymnosperms compared with angiosperms

Crisp, Michael; Cook, Lynette Gai

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We test the widely held notion that living gymnosperms are 'ancient' and 'living fossils' by comparing them with their sister group, the angiosperms. This perception derives partly from the lack of gross morphological differences between some Mesozoic gymnosperm fossils and their living relatives (e.g. Ginkgo, cycads and dawn redwood), suggesting that the rate of evolution of gymnosperms has been slow. We estimated the ages and diversification rates of gymnosperm lineages using Bayesian relaxed...[Show more]

dc.contributor.authorCrisp, Michael
dc.contributor.authorCook, Lynette Gai
dc.date.accessioned2015-12-10T23:08:38Z
dc.identifier.issn0028-646X
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1885/63198
dc.description.abstractWe test the widely held notion that living gymnosperms are 'ancient' and 'living fossils' by comparing them with their sister group, the angiosperms. This perception derives partly from the lack of gross morphological differences between some Mesozoic gymnosperm fossils and their living relatives (e.g. Ginkgo, cycads and dawn redwood), suggesting that the rate of evolution of gymnosperms has been slow. We estimated the ages and diversification rates of gymnosperm lineages using Bayesian relaxed molecular clock dating calibrated with 21 fossils, based on the phylogenetic analysis of alignments of matK chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and 26S nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) sequences, and compared these with published estimates for angiosperms. Gymnosperm crown groups of Cenozoic age are significantly younger than their angiosperm counterparts (median age: 32Ma vs 50Ma) and have long unbranched stems, indicating major extinctions in the Cenozoic, in contrast with angiosperms. Surviving gymnosperm genera have diversified more slowly than angiosperms during the Neogene as a result of their higher extinction rate. Compared with angiosperms, living gymnosperm groups are not ancient. The fossil record also indicates that gymnosperms suffered major extinctions when climate changed in the Oligocene and Miocene. Extant gymnosperm groups occupy diverse habitats and some probably survived after making adaptive shifts.
dc.publisherCambridge University Press
dc.sourceNew Phytologist
dc.subjectKeywords: nucleotide; Bayesian analysis; chloroplast; estimation method; extinction; fossil record; functional morphology; genetic analysis; habitat type; molecular analysis; Neogene; Oligocene; paleobotany; paleoenvironment; Phanerozoic; phylogenetics; species div Angiosperms; Diversification; Extinction; Fossil record; Gymnosperms; Molecular dating
dc.titleCenozoic extinctions account for the low diversity of extant gymnosperms compared with angiosperms
dc.typeJournal article
local.description.notesImported from ARIES
local.identifier.citationvolume192
dc.date.issued2011
local.identifier.absfor060311 - Speciation and Extinction
local.identifier.absfor060206 - Palaeoecology
local.identifier.ariespublicationu9511635xPUB779
local.type.statusPublished Version
local.contributor.affiliationCrisp, Michael, College of Medicine, Biology and Environment, ANU
local.contributor.affiliationCook, Lynette Gai, University of Queensland
local.description.embargo2037-12-31
local.bibliographicCitation.issue4
local.bibliographicCitation.startpage997
local.bibliographicCitation.lastpage1009
local.identifier.doi10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03862.x
local.identifier.absseo960805 - Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity at Regional or Larger Scales
dc.date.updated2016-02-24T12:08:34Z
local.identifier.scopusID2-s2.0-81055156928
local.identifier.thomsonID000297845300022
CollectionsANU Research Publications

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