Roden, James; Canny, Martin; Huang, Cheng; Ball, Marilyn
Conifers are among the most frost tolerant tree species. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) was used to visualise ice formation in pine needles to better understand how conifer leaves manage extracellular ice. Acclimated and unacclimated needles of Pinus radiata (D.Don) were subjected to freezing treatments (at a rate of 2°Ch-1), tested for electrolyte leakage and sampled for cryo-SEM analysis. Half maximal electrolyte leakage occurred at -4 and -12°C for unacclimated and acclimated...[Show more]
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