How does the concept of action fit within a scientifically serious world-view? This paper argues that the category of action, with its goal-seeking and orientation to the future, is not a human peculiarity, a perplexing incongruity in an otherwise mechanistic world. Rather, actions pervade the whole biological domain. The concept of action is needed to explicate the continued existence of every biological organism.Systems as primitive as bacteria are autonomous far-from-equilibrium systems,...[Show more]
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