Review: Sex Chromosome Evolution and the Expression of Sex-Specific Genes in the Placenta
Sex chromosomes have a disproportionate influence on health and disease. Both the X and Y are atypical in gene content and activity, as a result of their unique evolutionary trajectory. The X and Y chromosomes originated in a pair of autosomes, and differentiated as the Y chromosome degenerated progressively. The Y contains few active genes and is composed largely of repetitive DNA sequences. Most Y genes have copies on the X from which they evolved; this includes even the sex-determining gene...[Show more]
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