Lindenmayer, David; Likens, Gene E.
The enormity and complexity of problems like environmental degradation and biodiversity loss have led to the development of indicator species and other surrogate approaches to track changes in environments and/or in biodiversity. Under these approaches particular species or groups of species are used as proxies for other biota, particular environmental conditions, or for environmental change. The indicator species approach contrasts with a direct measurement approach in which the focus is on a...[Show more]
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