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Abrupt Changes: The Archilles heels of the Earth System

Steffen, Will; Andreae, Meinrat O; Bolin, Bert; Crutzen, Paul J; Cox, Peter M; Cubasch, Ulrich; Held, Hermann; Scholes, Robert J (Bob); Talaue-McManus, Liana


Records from the past show that abrupt global change is the norm, not the exception, in the Earth System. Many recent changes-such as the globalization of the world's economy and the formation of the ozone hole over Antarctica-appear rapid even from the perspective of a single lifetime. What do we now know about the nature of abrupt changes in the Earth System and the probability that human actions could trigger them?

CollectionsANU Research Publications
Date published: 2004
Type: Journal article
Source: Environment: science and policy for sustainable development


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