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Planet formation around stars of various masses: Hot super-earths

Kennedy, Grant; Kenyon, Scott J

Description

We consider trends resulting from two formation mechanisms for short-period super-Earths: planet-planet scattering and migration. We model scenarios where these planets originate near the snow line in "cold-finger" circumstellar disks. Low-mass planet-planet scattering excites planets to low-periastron orbits only for lower mass stars. With long circularization times, these planets reside on long-period eccentric orbits. Closer formation regions mean planets that reach short-period orbits by...[Show more]

dc.contributor.authorKennedy, Grant
dc.contributor.authorKenyon, Scott J
dc.date.accessioned2015-12-10T22:35:48Z
dc.identifier.issn0004-637X
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1885/56421
dc.description.abstractWe consider trends resulting from two formation mechanisms for short-period super-Earths: planet-planet scattering and migration. We model scenarios where these planets originate near the snow line in "cold-finger" circumstellar disks. Low-mass planet-planet scattering excites planets to low-periastron orbits only for lower mass stars. With long circularization times, these planets reside on long-period eccentric orbits. Closer formation regions mean planets that reach short-period orbits by migration are most common around low-mass stars. Above ∼1 M⊙, planets massive enough to migrate to close-in orbits before the gas disk dissipates are above the critical mass for gas giant formation. Thus, there is an upper stellar mass limit for short-period super-Earths that form by migration. If disk masses are distributed as a power law, planet frequency increases with metallicity because most disks have low masses. For disk masses distributed around a relatively high mass, planet frequency decreases with increasing metallicity. As icy planets migrate, they shepherd interior objects toward the star, which grow to ∼1 M⊕. In contrast to icy migrators, surviving shepherded planets are rocky. On reaching short-period orbits, planets are subject to evaporation processes. The closest planets may be reduced to rocky or icy cores. Low-mass stars have lower EUV luminosities, so the level of evaporation decreases with decreasing stellar mass.
dc.publisherIOP Publishing
dc.sourceAstrophysical Journal, The
dc.subjectKeywords: Planetary systems: Formation; Planetary systems: Protoplanetary disks
dc.titlePlanet formation around stars of various masses: Hot super-earths
dc.typeJournal article
local.description.notesImported from ARIES
local.identifier.citationvolume682
dc.date.issued2008
local.identifier.absfor020110 - Stellar Astronomy and Planetary Systems
local.identifier.ariespublicationu4105084xPUB362
local.type.statusPublished Version
local.contributor.affiliationKennedy, Grant, College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, ANU
local.contributor.affiliationKenyon, Scott J, Smithsonian Institution
local.description.embargo2037-12-31
local.bibliographicCitation.issue2
local.bibliographicCitation.startpage1264
local.bibliographicCitation.lastpage1276
local.identifier.doi10.1086/589436
dc.date.updated2015-12-09T10:30:44Z
local.identifier.scopusID2-s2.0-53549091051
CollectionsANU Research Publications

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