Wang, Yucang; Abe, Steffen; Latham, Shane; Mora, Peter Ronald
In this study, 3-D Lattice Solid Model (LSMearth or LSM) was extended by introducing particle-scale rotation. In the new model, for each 3-D particle, we introduce six degrees of freedom: Three for translational motion, and three for orientation. Six kinds of relative motions are permitted between two neighboring particles, and six interactions are transferred, i.e., radial, two shearing forces, twisting and two bending torques. By using quaternion algebra, relative rotation between two...[Show more]
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